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Based on interviews with parent groups and groups of persons with disabilities themselves, each national team documented practical, concrete examples of positive change in each of the 8 domains relating to the local context of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. In short, the study starts with a rather open exploratory approach with the aim of increasing our understanding of successful projects in the four countries and identifying basic, important factors promoting change and ends with a more comparative approach exploring similarities and differences between the three processes of change analyzed by each national team. They all collaborate in a multidisciplinary team, and they all work according to individual plans for each child. And all the team members were then asked to exert their influence by phone calls, e-mails, informal meetings, etc. So, it seems it won't stop since it keeps happening.

First we had to clarify the concept of quality of life in a period with too many models and too few clear principles to follow. In fact, the quality of life is a rather subjective concept, based on personal satisfaction and therefore very difficult to assess. This difficulty is even harder to overcome bravo showmaking show your subjects are persons with intellectual disabilities.

Thats why we had to base much of our assessment on the accounts from parents and staff members and to focus on our own bravo showmaking show and insights.

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For this we are in depth to several organizations, families and individuals who shared their experiences and efforts and made us understand that even with a lack of material resources, lack of space, unavailability of information, inadequate guidance from professionals and even with limited intellectual abilities, many things are possible.

Another striking point was the strong belief in material conditions as a basic factor for needs fulfilment. In fact many of the managers of the projects we visited presented with pride their new heating systems, the modern kitchen devices or the well equipped bathrooms from their institutions.

This is probably understandable in relation to the general living conditions in our country and especially in organizations and families facing disability. But what we discovered in our research is that the images of and attitudes towards persons with disabilities are fare more important for the understanding of the quality of services than any material aspects. Another difficulty was the necessity to choose between many strategies or models of service delivery.

The selection is based on comparisons and to compare is very difficult in such a complex social world. Everybody is looking for the right model but the complexity of particular bravo showmaking show led to a multitude of right models.


So we had to choose between the most complex dating ierusalim trying to learn from their strengths and weaknesses in order to identify factors leading to positive change that could be transmitted to the people working in the field. We did not intend to make a hierarchy among different projects who applied for this study.

Instead we tried to make a selection reflecting a variety of projects and services in Romania. And finally we had to clarify who the audience for this report should be.

We hope that it will go beyond academia, on to the professionals who are working directly 3 with intellectually disabled persons.

Un singur părinte datând din toronto we also hope that it will be available to the parents and families of disabled people. We hope that this report will contribute to the empowerment of parents and service providers to seek and develop better and more appropriate bravo showmaking show. We also hope that those in charge of the administration of professional and other organizations in the community that reach out to parents and persons with intellectual disability will also access this report.

We hope that they will be able to use this information and insight to bring about even more effective programs and sensitize persons to existing conditions in the Romanian context.

And we hope bravo showmaking show the report will be accessed by governmental organizations that bravo showmaking show indirectly and directly involved with policy making regarding disabilities as well as funding such initiatives.

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To influence UN bodies to increase the use of the UN Standard Rules and other UN Human Rights instruments to monitor the rights of persons with disabilities in general and children and adults with intellectual disabilities in particular. To achieve sustainable improvements in the conditions of children and adults with intellectual disabilities in Kenya, India and Romania through Influencing decision makers and authorities to implement the Bravo showmaking show Standard Rules Supporting NGOs that fight for the rights of children and adults with intellectual disabilities Forming and supporting Parent Mobilisation Action Groups PMAGs Using models developed in South Africa as a source of inspiration 3.

To study the processes and methods described above - as well as other similar initiatives - in order to identify the most successful ways to achieve sustainable improvements in the conditions of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. The study is the third and independent part of the project. The aim of bravo showmaking show study is to explore, understand and describe successful change processes and learn from them.

The following research questions have been addressed: Which projects resulting in sustainable improvements of life conditions for adults and children with intellectual disabilities can be found in the four countries? Which are the most strategic change agents, internationally, nationally and locally?

Processes of Change in The Lives

Which methods are most effective in order to initiate and maintain processes of change? What other factors, deliberate project interventions as well as contextual factors, are important to achieve a positive change? There will also be a final comparative analysis based on the national studies. Research teams consisting of persons have been established in each country according to the following guidelines: - The teams should include one person, who has academically achieved a doctors degree or similar research background to ensure the scientific level of the study - The team should include two representatives from the disability movement to ensure a user perspective of the study.

At least one of them should be a parent from the Inclusion International partner organisation2.

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Reference Group Swedish coordinators and scientific advisors Prof. Anders Bravo showmaking show Prof. Definition of Intellectual Disability In this Study we have used the following definition of intellectual disability 3: Intellectual disability is a condition where people have significant difficulties in learning and understanding due to an incomplete development of intelligence.

Their skills in areas such as cognition, language, motor and social abilities can be permanently impaired.

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A person with intellectual disability has life-long developmental needs. Intellectual disability is a condition of slow intellectual development, where medication has no effect.

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Intellectual disability can be caused by genetic factors, or by environmental factors, such as infections, or by a lack of oxygen supply of the brain during pregnancy or at birth. Intellectual disability is normally not caused by social or psychological causes. Difficulties in learning and understanding lead to problems in school and working life and to difficulties in being included in the regular life of society. There is a large variety of appearances and degrees of intellectual disability requiring different forms of therapies or support.

Intellectual disability is permanent.

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Intellectual disability is different from mental illness. Mental illness is an illness and can be cured, whereas intellectual disability is a life-long condition. People with mental illness need mental health care, medical and psychotherapies. In general they have no intellectual impairment and can live independently when their mental health problem is controlled.

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People with intellectual disability are not ill, unless they have a common illness. They need easy-to-understand information, education or training to live included in society. Inclusion International information leaflet In Romania, the state constitution refers to the protection of handicapped people, and the word handicap is used in official law and policy, though experts agree that such terminology is outdated and stigmatizing.

There is no specific definition of intellectual disabilities used in legislation, nor are there discrete statistical data on the number and situation of people with intellectual disabilities.

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The most frequently used term is mental handicap, and in some cases, mental deficiencies. The definition remains outdated, however, as it is based on terminology elaborated by the WHO in Experts in the field have called for the definition of people with handicaps to be reworked in the Romanian legislation, to bring it in line with definitions accepted at the international level.

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A second order, promulgated at the same time, sets out similar classifications for the diagnosis of adults with intellectual disabilities 5. As a consequence processes of change affecting the living conditions of people with disabilities are likely to differ between countries and action that prove to be effective promoting change in one country are not necessarily the most effective in another country. This has important consequences for our study.

First, our understanding of the processes of change and improvement is better facilitated by rich contextual data than by comparisons with other similar interventions aiming at social change.

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As a consequence, extensive case studies are likely to be more helpful than broad comparisons of many different cases. We have therefore decided to limit the study to three successful projects resulting in improved living conditions of people with intellectual disabilities in each of the four countries.

Secondly, in order to investigate and understand the dynamics of specific processes of change, the process first of all has to be studied in its own unique national and local contexts. This means that the projects will be studied in their own historical, national and cultural contexts and that the comparative phase of the analysis is introduced in the final analytical step to explore interesting similarities and differences in the basic factors of change identified in each individual change process.

In short, the study starts with a rather open exploratory approach with the aim of increasing our understanding of successful projects in the four countries and identifying basic, important factors promoting change and ends with a bravo showmaking show comparative approach exploring similarities and differences between the three processes of change analyzed by each national team.

Because of the big contextual differences between and within countries, the research methodology has been developed in a participatory process where each national team has played an important role. Finding a common frame of reference for the choice of cautare de profil online successful projects The design of the study is rather open and sensitive to the approaches that the national research teams find most productive.

However, identifying differences and similarities in change processes within the 4 countries requires a common basis for the selection of the cases.

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A project is a deliberate effort to achieve positive changes in the situation for persons with intellectual disabilities. A project has a starting point and an end point.

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It was agreed that It was also agreed that the following 4 criteria should guide the selection process: 1. A substantial impact on the quality of life of persons with intellectual disabilities. The project must have impacted positively on at least four of the QoL domains in order to be selected or had an exceptional impact on one of them.

The following IASSID consensus quality of life domains was used as a common frame of reference 6 to describe quality of life.

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In order to make the quality of life domains more concrete and possible to use as selection criteria for the national teams, local interpretations were required. Based on interviews with parent groups and groups of persons with disabilities themselves, each national team documented practical, concrete examples of positive change in each of the 8 domains relating to the local context of children and adults with intellectual disabilities.

An instrument, listing the most important characteristics of the quality of life domains, was developed in each country. An additional domain was created for the African context, namely Interdependence: The Reference Group has examined different instruments and more general points of departure that could be used for evaluating impact of the successful projects. Different tools have different benefits and disadvantages. As we are about to study relative changes in various cultural, political and economical settings, we need to use a tool that is flexible, easy to use and which is not relating to too detailed and context bound measurements of life conditions.

We need a qualitative instrument that can capture the bravo showmaking show on both individual and society levels from a user perspective. In this particular study bravo showmaking show give priority to strategies that are likely to picture the dynamics of the changes in an empirically sensitive way.

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While being aware that quantitative instruments usually are preferred when making comparative studies, we agreed that such instruments are not possible to use in this study.